France EPP

Véronique Mathieu Houillon

Country: France
Group: European People's Party (EPP)
Party: Union pour un Mouvement Populaire - Parti Radical (UMP/PR)

Member of Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs
Substitute of Budgetary Control
Substitute of Agriculture and Rural Development

Overview Véronique Mathieu Houillon

Amendments: 97
...stronger: 7
...weaker: 73
...neutral: 17

Amendments by Véronique Mathieu Houillon

(23a) This regulation recognises that pseudonymisation is in the benefit of all data subjects as, by definition, personal data is altered so that it of itself cannot be attributed to a data subject without the use additional data. By this, controllers should be encouraged to the practice of pseudonymising data.
  Comment: Overall the concept of "pseudonymisation" leads to less rights for users, even though such data is still "personal data". Discuss this Rating
(25) Consent should be given explicitlyunambiguously by any appropriate method within the context of the product or the service being offered enabling a freely given specific and informed indication of the data subject’s wishes, either by a statement or by a clear affirmative action by the data subject, ensuring that individuals are aware that they give their consent to the processing of personal data, including by ticking a box when visiting an Internet website or by any other statement or conduct which clearly indicates in this context the data subject’s acceptance of the proposed processing of their personal data. Silence or inactivity should therefore not constitute consent. This nevertheless leaves the provisions of 2002/58/EC untouched which state that under certain circumstances consent can be expressed via appropriate settings in the user’s device. Consent should cover all processing activities carried out for the same purpose or purposes. If the data subject’s consent is to be given following an electronic request, the request must be clear, concise and not unnecessarily disruptive to the use of the service for which it is provided.
(26) Personal data relating to health should include in particular all personal data pertaining to the health status of a data subject including genetic information; information about the registration of the individual for the provision of health services; information about payments or eligibility for healthcare with respect to the individual; a number, symbol or particular assigned to an individual to uniquely identify the individual for health purposes; any information about the individual collected in the course of the provision of health services to the individual; information personal data derived from the testing or examination of a body part or , bodily substance, including biological samples or biological sample; identification of a person as provider of healthcare to the individual; or any information on e.g. a disease, disability, disease risk, medical history, clinical treatment, or the actual physiological or biomedical state of the data subject independent of its source, such as e.g. from a physician or other health professional, a hospital, a medical device, or an in vitro diagnostic test.
(27) The (27) Where a controller or a processor has multiple establishments in the Union, including but not limited to cases where the controller or the processor is a group of undertakings, the main establishment of a controller in the Union for the purposes of this Regulation should be determined according to objective criteria and should imply the effective and real exercise of management activities determining the main decisions as to the purposes, conditions and means of processing through stable arrangements. This criterion should not depend whether the processing of personal data is actually carried out at that location; the presence and use of technical means and technologies for processing personal data or processing activities do not, in themselves, constitute such main establishment and are therefore nonot determining criteria for a main establishment. The main establishment of the processor should be the place of its central administration A group of undertakings may nominate a single main establishment in the Union.
  Comment: Allows "Forum Shopping" Discuss this Rating
(34) Consent should not provide a valid legal ground for the processing of personal data, where there is a clear imbalance between the data subject and the controller. This is especially the case where the data subject is in a situation of dependence from the controller, among others, where personal data are processed by the employer of employees’ personal data in the employment context. Where the controller is a public authority, there would be an imbalance only in the specific data processing operations where the public authority can impose an obligation by virtue of its relevant public powers and the consent cannot be deemed as freely given, taking into account the interest of the data subject.
(38) The legitimate interests of a controller or the third party to which the data have been transferred may provide a legal basis for processing, provided that the interests or the fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject are not overriding. This would need careful assessment in particular where the data subject is a child, given that children deserve specific protection. The data subject should have the right to object the processing, on grounds relating to their particular situation and free of charge. To ensure transparency, the controller should be obliged to explicitly inform the data subject on the legitimate interests pursued and on the right to object, and also be obliged to document these legitimate interests. Given that it is for the legislator to provide by law the legal basis for public authorities to process data, this legal ground should not apply for the processing by public authorities in the performance of their tasks.
(40) The processing of personal data for other purposes should be only allowed where the processing is compatible with those purposes for which the data have been initially collected, in particular where the processing is necessary for historical, statistical or scientific research purposes. Where the other purpose is not compatible with the initial one for which the data are collected, the controller should obtain the consent of the data subject for this other purpose or should base the processing on another legitimate ground for lawful processing, in particular where provided by Union law or the law of the Member State to which the controller is subject. In any case, the application of the principles set out by this Regulation and in particular the information of the data subject on those other purposes should be ensured..
(53) Any person should have the right to have personal data concerning them rectified and a ‘the right to be forgotten’ have such personal data erased where the retention of such data is not in compliance with this Regulation. In particular, data subjects should have the right that their personal data are erased and no longer processed, where the data are no longer necessary in relation to the purposes for which the data are collected or otherwise processed, where data subjects have withdrawn their consent for processing or where they object to the processing of personal data concerning them or where the processing of their personal data otherwise does not comply with this Regulation. This right is particularly relevant, when the data subject has given their consent as a child, when not being fully aware of the risks involved by the processing, and later wants to remove such personal data especially on the Internet. However, the further retention of the data should be allowed where it is necessary for historical, statistical and scientific research purposes, for reasons of public interest in the area of public healthhealth purposes in accordance with Article 81, for exercising the right of freedom of expression, when required by law or where there is a reason to restrict the processing of the data instead of erasing them. Also, the right to erasure should not apply when the retention of personal data is necessary for the performance of a contract with the data subject, or when there is a regulatory requirement to retain this data, or for the prevention of financial crime.
(58) Every natural and legal person should have the right not to be subject to a measure which is based on profiling by means of automated processing. However, such measure and which produces legal effects concerning that natural or legal person or significantly affects that natural or legal person. Actual effects should be comparable in their intensity to legal effects to fall under this provision. This is not the case for measures relating to commercial communication, like for example in the field of customer relationship management or customer acquisition. However, a measure based on profiling by automated data processing and which produces legal effects concerning a natural or legal person or significantly affects a natural person should be allowed when expressly authorised by law, carried out in the course of entering or performance of a contract, or when the data subject has given his consent. In any case, such processing should be subject to suitable safeguards, including specific information of the data subject and the right to obtain human intervention and that such measure should not concern a child.
(62) The protection of the rights and freedoms of data subjects as well as the responsibility and liability of controllers and processor, also in relation to the monitoring by and measures of supervisory authorities, requires a clear attribution of the responsibilities under this Regulation, including where a controller determines the purposes, conditions and means of the processing jointly with other controllers or where a processing operation is carried out on behalf of a controller.
(65) In order to demonstrate compliance with this Regulation, the controller or processor should document each processing operation under its responsibility. Each controller and processor should be obliged to co-operate with the supervisory authority and make this documentation, on request, available to it, so that it might serve for monitoring those processing operations.
(121) The processing of personal data solely for journalistic purposes, or for the purposes of artistic or literary expression should qualify for exemption from the requirements of certain provisions of this Regulation in order to reconcile the right to the protection of personal data with the right to freedom of expression, and notably the right to receive and impart information, as guaranteed in particular by Article 11 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. This should apply in particular to processing of personal data in the audiovisual field and in news archives and press libraries. Therefore, Member States should adopt legislative measures, which should lay down exemptions and derogations which are necessary for the purpose of balancing these fundamental rights. Such exemptions and derogations should be adopted by the Member States on general principles, on the rights of the data subject, on controller and processor, on the transfer of data to third countries or international organisations, on the independent supervisory authorities and on co-operation and consistency. This should not, however, lead Member States to lay down exemptions from the other provisions of this Regulation. In order to take account of the importance of the right to freedom of expression in every democratic society, it is necessary to interpret notions relating to that freedom, such as journalism, broadly. Therefore, Member States should classify activities as ‘journalistic’ for the purpose of the exemptions and derogations to be laid down under this Regulation if the object of these activities is the disclosure to the public of information, opinions or ideas, irrespective of the medium which is used to transmit them. They should not be limited to media undertakings and may be undertaken for profit-making or for non- profit making purposes.
(ec) which have been rendered anonymous;
(1) ‘data subject’ means an identified natural person or a natural person who can be identified, directly or indirectly, by means reasonably likely to be used by the controller or by any other natural or legal person working together with the controller, in particular by reference to an identification number, location data, online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that person; and who is not acting in his/her professional capacity;
(2a) ‘pseudonymous data’ means any personal data that has been collected, altered or otherwise processed so that it of itself cannot be attributed to a data subject without the use of additional data which is subject to separate and distinct technical and organisational controls to ensure such non attribution, or that such attribution would require a disproportionate amount of time, expense and effort;
  Comment: Dependent on the attached consequences, but exceptions for pseudonymous data are always leading to less protection. Discuss this Rating
(2b) ‘anonymous data’ means any personal data that has been collected, altered or otherwise processed in such a way that it can no longer be attributed to a data subject; anonymous data shall not be considered personal data;
(5) ‘controller’ means the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or any other body which alone or jointly with others determines the purposes, conditions and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes, conditions and means of processing are determined by Union law or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for his nomination may be designated by Union law or by Member State law;
(8) ‘the data subject’s consent’ means any freely given specific, informed and explicitunambiguous indication of his or her wishes by which the data subject, either by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to personal data relating to them being processed; Silence or inactivity does not in itself indicate acceptance;
(13) ‘main establishment’ means as regards the controller, the place of its establishment in the Union where the main decisions as to the purposes, conditions and means of the processing of personal data are taken; if no decisions as to the purposes, conditions and means of the processing of personal data are taken in the Union, the main establishment is the place where the main processing activities in the context of the activities of an establishment of a controller in the Union take place. As regards the processor, ‘main establishment’ means the place of its central administration in the Union;the location as determined by the data controller or data processor on the basis of the following transparent and objective criteria: the location of the group’s European headquarters, or, the location of the company within the group with delegated data protection responsibilities, or, the location of the company which is best placed (in terms of management function, administrative capability etc) to address and enforce the rules as set out in this Regulation, or, the place where the main decisions as to the purposes of processing are taken for the regional group;
(c) processing is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation to which the controller is subject;, the group of companies of which the controller is a member or any other member of that group of companies is subject
(f) processing is necessary for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by , or on behalf of a controller, or a processor, or by a third party or parties in whose interest the data is processed, including for the security of processing, except where such interests are overridden by the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject which require protection of personal data, in particular where the data subject issuch as in the case of processing data pertaining to a child. This The interest or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject shall not apply to override processing carried out by public authorities in the performance of their tasks.
(fa) the data are collected from public registers lists or documents accessible by everyone;
(fc) processing is limited to pseudonymised data, where the data subject is adequately protected and the recipient of the service is given a right to object pursuant to Article 19(3);
(fd) processing is necessary for the purpose of anonymisation or pseudonymisation of personal data;
  Comment: Grading based on overall concept of exceptions for such data. Discuss this Rating
2a. Processing of pseudonymised data to safeguard the legitimate interests pursued by a controller shall be lawful, except where such interests are overridden by the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject which require protection of personal data, in particular where the data subject is a child. This shall not apply to processing carried out by public authorities in the performance of their tasks.
4. Where the purpose of further processing is not compatible with the one for which the personal data have been collected, the processing must have a legal basis at least in one of the grounds referred to in points (a) to (e) of paragraph 1. This shall in particular apply to any change of terms and general conditions of a contract.
5. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 86 for the purpose of further specifying the conditions referred to in point (f) of paragraph 1 for various sectors and data processing situations, including as regards the processing of personal data related to a child.
4. Consent shall not provide a legal basis for the processing, where there is a significant imbalance between the position of the data subject and the controller.
(aa) processing is necessary for the performance or execution of a contract to which the data subject is party or in order to take steps at the request of the data subject prior to entering into a contract;
(f) processing is necessary for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims or the legally justified fulfilment of claims of third parties affected; or
(ja) processing of data concerning health is necessary for private social protection, especially by providing income security or tools to manage risks that are in the interests of the data subject and his or her dependants and assets, or by enhancing inter-generational equity by means of distribution.
If the data processed by a controller do not permit the controller or a processor to identify a natural person, in particular when rendered anonymous or pseudononymous the controller shall not be obliged to process or acquire additional information in order to identify the data subject for the sole purpose of complying with any provision of this Regulation.
1. Where personal data relating to a data subject are collected, the controller shall provide the data subject with at least the following information:. The following paragraphs do not apply to small enterprises in the course of their own activity and for data which is strictly and exclusively for their internal use.
(a) the identity and the contact details of the controller and, if any, of the controller's representative and of the data protection officer;;
(b) the purposes of the processing for which the personal data are intended, including the contract terms and general conditions where the processing is based on point (b) of Article 6(1) and the legitimate interests pursued by the controller where the processing is based on point (f) of Article 6(1);;
(c) the period for which the personal data will be stored;
(d) the existence of the right to request from the controller access to and rectification or erasure of the personal data concerning the data subject orand to object to the processing of such personal data;
(e) the right to lodge a complaint to the supervisory authority and the contact details of the supervisory authority;
(h) any further information necessary to guarantee fair processing in respect of the data subject, having regard to the specific circumstances in which the personal data are collected.
2. Where the personal data are collected from the data subject, the controller shall inform the data subject, in addition to the information referred to in paragraph 1, whether the provision of personal data is obligatory or voluntary, as well as the possible consequences of failure to provide such data..
(b) where the personal data are not collected from the data subject, at the time of the recording or within a reasonable period after the collection, having regard to the specific circumstances in which the data are collected or otherwise processed, or, if a disclosure to another recipient is envisaged, and at the latest when the data are first disclosed.; or, if the data shall be used for communication with the person concerned, at the latest at the time of the first communication to that person.
(b) the data are not collected from the data subject or the data processes do not allow the verification of identity and the provision of such information proves impossible or would involve a disproportionate effort such as by generating excessive administrative burden, especially when the processing is carried out by a SME; or
(c) the data are not collected from the data subject and (c) recording or disclosure is expressly laid down by law; or
(d) the data are not collected from the data subject and the provision of such information will impair the rights and freedoms of others, as defined in Union law or Member State law in accordance with Article 21.; or
(da) the data originates from publicly available sources; or
(db) the data must be kept secret in accordance with legislation or by virtue of their nature, particularly because of a legitimate overriding interest of a third party.
(dc) the data are processed in the exercise of his profession by, or are entrusted or become known to, a person who is subject to an obligation of professional secrecy regulated by the State or to a statutory obligation of secrecy.
7. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 86 for the purpose of further specifying the criteria for categories of recipients referred to in point (f) of paragraph 1, the requirements for the notice of potential access referred to in point (g) of paragraph 1, the criteria for the further information necessary referred to in point (h) of paragraph 1 for specific sectors and situations, and the conditions and appropriate safeguards for the exceptions laid down in point (b) of paragraph 5. In doing so, the Commission shall take the appropriate measures for micro, small and medium-sized- enterprises.
1. The 1. Only the data subject shall have the right to obtain from the controller at any time, on request, confirmation as to whether or not personal data relating to the data subject are being processed. unless this request is manifestly excessive according to 12 (4). Where such personal data are being processed, the controller shall - so far as the data subject has not received - provide the following information:
(d) (d) if known the period for which the personal data will be stored;
2. The data subject shall have the right to obtain from the controller communication of the personal data undergoing processing. Where the data subject makes the request in electronic form, the information shall be provided in electronic form, unless otherwise requested by the data subject.
2a. Successors in right and title must be able to exercise the right of access to data in the event of the death of the data subject.
  Comment: AM might invade the data subjects privacy but gives more rights to users. Discuss this Rating
3. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 86 for the purpose of further specifying the criteria and requirements for the communication todata subject shall have the right, where personal data are processed by electronic means and in a structured and commonly used format, to obtain from the controller a copy of data which were provided by the data subject itself and that undergoing processing in an electronic and structured format which is commonly used and allows for further use by the data subject of the content of the personal data referred to in point (g) of paragraph 1.. This right shall not restrict rights of others as trade secrets or intellectual property rights. This does not apply on the processing of anonymised and pseudonymised data, insofar as the data subject is not sufficiently identifiable on the basis of such data or identification would require the controller to undo the process of pseudonymisation.
3a. There shall be no right to information where: (a) data are involved which a person bound by professional secrecy is required to protect; (b) data must be kept secret in accordance with legislation or by virtue of their nature, particularly because of the overriding interest of a third party; (c) the public entity responsible has ascertained in relation to the entity responsible that disclosure of the data would endanger public safety or order; (d) data comprise trade secrets.
Paragraph 1 shall not apply to pseudonymous data.
Successors in right and title must be able to exercise the right of rectification in the event of the death of the data subject.
1a. Successors in right and title must be able to exercise the right of erasure in the event of the death of the data subject.
  Comment: Two sided. Discuss this Rating
2. Where the controller referred to in paragraph 1 has made the personal data public, it shall take all reasonable steps, including technical measures, in relation to data for the publication of which the controller is responsible, to inform third parties which are processing such data, that a data subject requests them to erase any links to, or copy or replication of that personal data. Where the controller has authorised a third party publication of personal data, the controller shall be considered responsible for that publication. Anonymised data, pseudonymised data and encrypted data are exempted, where compliance with this provision would require the controller to undo the process of anonymisation, pseudonymisation or encryption.
Article 18 Right to data portability 1. The data subject shall have the right, where personal data are processed by electronic means and in a structured and commonly used format, to obtain from the controller a copy of data undergoing processing in an electronic and structured format which is commonly used and allows for further use by the data subject. 2. Where the data subject has provided the personal data and the processing is based on consent or on a contract, the data subject shall have the right to transmit those personal data and any other information provided by the data subject and retained by an automated processing system, into another one, in an electronic format which is commonly used, without hindrance from the controller from whom the personal data are withdrawn. 3. The Commission may specify the electronic format referred to in paragraph 1 and the technical standards, modalities and procedures for the transmission of personal data pursuant to paragraph 2. Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 87(2).
2. Where personal data are processed for direct marketing purposes, the data subject shall have the right to object free of charge to the processing of their personal data for such marketing. This right shall be explicitly offered to the data subject in an intelligible manner and shall be clearly distinguishable from other information. This right shall include a right to object to the collection and use of personal data obtained through online tracking of the data subject's preferences and behaviour across websites. Where a data subject expresses this right to object through technical means, such as a browser setting, controllers and processors shall respect such objection, consistent with technical industry standards, and must obtain the consent of the data subject to process personal data derived from online tracking for marketing purposes. Consent to online tracking shall enable persistent online tracking across all websites unless such consent is subsequently revoked by the data subject.
3a. Where pseudonymised data is processed pursuant to Article 6(1) the data subject shall have the right to object free of charge. This right shall be offered to the data subject in an intelligible manner and shall be clearly distinguishable from other information.
1. Every natural persondata subject shall have the right not to be subject to a measure processing of personal data which produces adverse legal effects concerning this natural person or significantlydata subject or comparably affects this natural person, and which is based solely on automated processing intended to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to this natural persondata subject or to analyse or predict in particular the natural persondata subject's performance at work, economic situation, location, health, personal preferences, reliability or behaviour.
(ca) is limited to pseudonymised data. Such pseudonymised data must not be collated with data on the bearer of the pseudonym. Article19(3a) shall apply correspondingly.
3. Automated processing of personal data intended to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person shall not be based solely on the special categories of personal data referred to in Article 9. unless the data subject has given consent.
5. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 86 for the purpose of further specifying the criteria and conditions for suitable measures to safeguard the data subject's legitimate interests referred to in paragraph 2.
Where a controller determines the purposes, conditions and means of the processing of personal data jointly with others, the joint controllers shall determine their respective responsibilities for compliance with the obligations under this Regulation, in particular as regards the procedures and mechanisms for exercising the rights of the data subject, by means of an arrangement between them.
2. The carrying out of processing by a processor shall be governed by a contract or other legal act binding the processor to the controller and stipulating in particular that the processor shall:. The controller and the processor shall be free to determine respective roles and responsibilities with respect to the requirements of this Regulation and shall provide for the following:
(d) enlist another processor only with the prior permission of the controller;
(e) insofar as this is possible given the nature of the processing, create in agreement with the controller the necessary technical and organisational requirements for the fulfilment of the controller's obligation to respond to requests for exercising the data subject's rights laid down in Chapter III;
(f) assist the controller in ensuring compliance with the obligations pursuant to Articles 30 to 34;
(g) hand over all results to the controller after the end of the processing and not process the personal data otherwise;
(h) make available to the controller and the supervisory authority on request all information necessary to control compliance with the obligations laid down in this Article.
5. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 86 for the purpose of further specifying the criteria and requirements for the responsibilities, duties and tasks in relation to a processor in line with paragraph 1, and conditions which allow facilitating the processing of personal data within a group of undertakings, in particular for the purposes of control and reporting.
1. Each controller and processor and, if any, the controller's representative, shall maintain documentation of all processing operations under its responsibility.
3. The controller and the processor and, if any, the controller's representative, shall make the documentation available, on request, to the supervisory authority.
5. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 86 for the purpose of further specifying the criteria and requirements for the documentation referred to in paragraph 1, to take account of in particular the responsibilities of the controller and the processor and, if any, the controller's representative.
1. The controller and the processor shall implement appropriate technical and organisational measures , including pseudonymisation, to ensure a level of security appropriate to the risks represented by the processing and the nature of the personal data to be protected, having regard to the state of the art and the costs of their implementation.
1. In the case of a personal data breach, the controller shall without undue delay and, where feasible, not later than 24 hours after having become aware of it, notify the relating to special categories of personal data, personal data which are subject to professional secrecy, personal data relating to criminal offences or to the suspicion of a criminal act or personal data breach to the supervisory authority. The notification to the supervisory authority shall be accompanied by a reasoned justification in cases where it is not made within 24 hours.relating to bank or credit card accounts, which seriously threaten the rights or legitimate interests of the data subject, the controller shall without undue delay notify the personal data breach to the supervisory authority.
5. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 86 for the purpose of further specifying the criteria and requirements for establishing the data breach referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 and for the particular circumstances in which a controller and a processor is required to notify the personal data breach.
1. When the personal data breach is likely to adversely affect the protection of the personal data or privacy , the privacy, the right or the legitimate interests of the data subject, the controller shall, after the notification referred to in Article 31, communicate the personal data breach to the data subject without undue delay. A breach should be considered as adversely affecting the personal data or privacy of a data subject where it could result in, for example, identity theft or fraud, physical harm, significant humiliation or damage to reputation.
3. The communication of a personal data breach to the data subject shall not be required if the controller demonstrates to the satisfaction of the supervisory authority that it data breach has not produced significant harm and the controller has implemented appropriate technological protection measures, and that those measures were applied to the data concerned by the personal data breach. Such technological protection measures shall render the data unintelligible , unusable or anonymised to any person who is not authorised to access it.access to it.
c) monitoring publicly accessible areas, especially when using optic-electronic devices (video surveillance) on a large scale;
4. The controller shall seek the views of data subjects or their representatives on the intended processing, without prejudice to the protection of commercial or public interests or the security of the processing operations.
2. In the case referred to in point (b) of paragraph 1, a group of undertakings may appoint a single data protection officer. A corporate group may also appoint a single data protection officer for one or more processing operations by several organisations within it.
4a. Where the controller belongs to a professional body or a body of controllers from the same sector, he may appoint a data protection officer duly mandated by the body concerned.
7. The controller or the processor shall designate a data protection officer for a period of at least two years at a suitable hierarchical level. The data protection officer may be reappointed for further terms. During their term of office, the data protection officer may only be dismissed, if the data protection officer no longer fulfils the conditions required for the performance of their duties.
Article 49a Professional supervision of persons subject to an obligation of professional secrecy Insofar as, when this regulation enters into force, entities exist which are responsible for the professional supervision of persons subject to an obligation of professional secrecy, these may establish the supervisory authority.
3. The supervisory authority shall not be competent to supervise processing operations of courts acting in their judicial capacity. and not competent to supervise processing operations of controllers bound by obligations of professional secrecy.
1. Any body, organisation or association referred to in Article 73(2) shall have the right to exercise the rights referred to in Articles 74 and 75 on behalf of one or more data subjects.
1. Any person who has suffered damage as a result of an unlawful processing operation or of an action incompatible with this Regulation shall have the right to receive compensation from the controller or the processor for the damage suffered.
2. Where more than one controller or processor is involved in the processing, each controller or processor shall be jointly and severally liable for the entire amount of the damage., notwithstanding the contractual agreement they might have concluded according to Article 24.
3. The controller or the processor may be exempted from this liability, in whole or in part, if the controller or the processor proves that they are not responsible for the event giving rise to the damage.
3. In case of a first and non-intentional non-non-compliance with this Regulation, a warning in writing may be given and no sanction imposed, where: (a) a natural person is processing personal data without a commercial interest; or (b) an enterprise or an organisation employing fewer than 250 persons is processing personal data only as an activity ancillary to its main activities..
1. Member States shall provide for exemptions or derogations from the provisions on the 1. Chapter II (general principles in Chapter II, ), Chapter III (the rights of the data subject in Chapter III, on), Chapter IV (the controller and processor in Chapter IV, on the ), Chapter V (transfer of personal data to third countries and international organisations in Chapter V, the independent supervisory authorities in Chapter VI and on co-operation and consistency in Chapter VII for ), Chapter VI (supervisory authorities), Chapter VII (cooperation and consistency) and Articles 73, 74, 76 and 79 of Chapters VIII (legal remedies, liability and penalties) and X shall not apply to the processing of personal data carried out solely for journalistic purposes or the purpose of artistic or literary expression in order to reconcile the right to the protection of personal data with the rules governing freedom of expression.
(ba) the personal data is processed for the purpose of generating aggregate data reports, wholly composed of either anonymous data, pseudonymous data or both.
(a) the data subject has given consent, subject to the conditions laid down in Article 7; or
1. Within the limits of this Regulation, Member States mayshall adopt specific rules to set out the investigative powers by the supervisory authorities laid down in Article 53(2) in relation to controllers or processors that are subjects under national law or rules established by national competent bodies to an obligation of professional secrecy or other equivalent obligations of secrecy, where this is necessary and proportionate to reconcile the right of the protection of personal data with the obligation of secrecy. These rules shall only apply with regard to personal data which the controller or processor has received from or has obtained in an activity covered by this obligation of secrecy.